About our test for classification of muscle characteristics

Several different genes affect your body's ability to assimilate training and various forms of exercise.

Exercise is an important part of a healthy life but your ability to perform during exercise is also affected by your genes. Several different genes affect your body's ability to assimilate training and various forms of exercise

This test examines the gene ACTN3 which shows which specific muscle characteristics you carry and how they can affect your training.

We offer different cooperative opportunities in which we tailor solutions for each customer. Our concept covers the entire chain from sampling kits and method of analysis to performing analysis and distribution of analytical results

Simple sampling

Our test for classification of muscle characteristics is simple to perform. The CE-marked sampling kit contains sampling material, instructions and return packaging. You take a cheek scrape sample yourself at home and then send it to our quality-assured laboratory for DNA analysis. The result of analysis is obtained online with a personal code 5 days after the sample is received at our laboratory.

Background of our test

ACTN3 is a gene coding for alpha-actinin-3, a protein that acts as a major building block in rapid and explosive muscle fibres. In this test we look at position 577 in the gene which occurs in two variants, a C allele and a T allele (rs9939609). The more common C allele encodes the amino acid arginine (R), while the alternative T alelle encodes a stop codon (X) and thus a truncated protein. This SNP is sometimes also called R577X.

CC and CT genotypes of the ACTN3 gene provide the ability to produce the protein α-actinin-3, which is included in the construction of fast twitch muscle fibres. Alpha-actinin-3 also seems to have an influencing role in muscle energy metabolism which together creates a cellular environment that enables a high muscular capacity for power and speed. This provides greater opportunities in sports that require explosive power of muscles.

Individuals with the TT genotype of ACTN3 do not form alpha-actinin-3 in the muscles. This affects the muscle's ability for fast and explosive power development. People with this gene variant are more often seen among athletes in endurance sports, where muscles without alpha-actinin-3 consequently have a more stamina-adapted profile and are better able to use oxygen for energy production. This affects energy processes used in training and may mean that these people need less time for recovery before the next training session. Lack of an active ACTN3 gene is not always an advantage in endurance sports, even though the muscles have a capacity that is more directed towards this. Namely lack of muscular α-actinin-3 can be compensated by other proteins.

Over one billion people worldwide are estimated to carry the inactive TT genotype of R577X while the remaining percentage of the population expresses either genotype CC or CT. Athletes who practice sports that require explosiveness in muscles, such as sprinting and football, often have the CC genotype and form alpha-actinin-3 in their muscles. The function of alpha-actinin-3 enables the fast and explosive contractions required in these types of sports.

How do my genes affect my training?

The variants that you carry in genes like ACTN3 provide insight into muscle characteristics and the body’s condition for training. It provides guidance on how to set up your training with respect to exercise, intensity and recovery time based on genetic conditions. It is important to remember that genes are one of many factors that affect training. Regardless of which gene variants you carry, a balanced diet and regular and varied physical activity are an important part of health.

Unique method of analysis

Dynamic Code uses a proprietary laboratory method for analysing the different SNP positions in the ACTN3 gene. The developed method is based on PCR analysis. The method is validated according to accredited procedures.

Information and price quotes

For more information about our test for training and muscle characteristics and potential collaboration, contact us.

Phone: +46(0)13 65 53 20

E-mail: info@dynamiccode.se

Quality and security

A comparison between the proprietary method and Sanger sequencing for a total of 53 samples of the ACTN3 gene showed a 100% match.

The analyses are carried out in Dynamic Code’s quality assured laboratory.

Sampling kits are CE marked according to IVD Directive 98/79/EC and the MDD directive 93/42/EEC and in addition to future legislative changes.

Studies have shown that the procedures in the sampling kit are clear and safe when it comes to taking the sample correctly, sending the sample and obtaining the results.

The test for classification of muscle characteristics is registered with the Swedish Food and Drug Administration.

References

Alfred T et al,. ACTN3 Genotype, Athletic Status, and Life Course Physical Capability: Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature and Findings from Nine Studies. Hum Mutat. 2011 sep;32(9):1008-18

Berman Y and North KN. A gene for speed: the emerging role of alpha-actinin-3 in muscle metabolism. Physiology. 2010 Aug;25(4):250-9

Brunkwall L et al,. Genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) in association with food preferences in healthy adults. Food Nutr Res. 2013 Apr 12;5

Friedlander SM et al. ACTN3 allele frequency in humans covaries with global latitudinal gradient. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52282

Herrera BM and Lindgren CM. The genetics of obesity. Curr Diab Rep. 2010 Dec;10(6):498-505.

Ma F et al,. The association of sport performance with ACE and ACTN3 genetic polymorphisms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54685

Seto JT et al,. Deficiency of α-actinin-3 is associated with increased susceptibility to contraction-induced damage and skeletal muscle remodeling. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Aug 1;20(15):2914-27

Venckunas T et al,. Human alpha-actinin-3 genotype association with exercise-induced muscle damage and the repeated-bout effect. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Dec;37(6):1038-46. 

 

To our test for classification of muscle characteristics

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